The Limitations of GTO Strategy

Game Theory Optimal (GTO) strategy has become increasingly popular among professional poker players in recent years. This strategy aims to create a balance between value betting and bluffing, ensuring that a player’s range of hands is unexploitable by their opponents. While GTO strategy is an important tool in a player’s arsenal, it has limitations that players should consider. In this blog, we’ll explore four limitations of GTO strategy in poker.

GTO Strategy is Theoretical

GTO strategy is based on game theory, which involves mathematical models that analyze decision-making in competitive situations. It is a theoretical approach that relies on the assumption that all players are rational and can execute the optimal strategy in every hand.

However, in real poker games, this assumption is not sustainable. Players make mistakes all the time, and their decisions can be influenced by emotions and fatigue. So GTO strategy is not always relevant in practice.

GTO Doesn’t Account for Human Error

GTO strategy is assuming the other player(s) are also playing close to a GTO strategy when this is only the case at the highest levels of poker.

Most players at low to mid stakes are playing nowhere close to a GTO game and can be exploited due to their errors or tendencies. For example, if a very tight and cautious player makes a large river bet, GTO strategy may dictate that you should call in this particular spot but wouldn’t be accounting for this player being tight and being very unlikely to be bluffing.

Likewise, if a maniac at your table is bluffing at a high frequency, GTO strategy wouldn’t account for this and it wouldn’t be correct to incorporate in similar situations.

An analogy to football would be if a defense came out in the dime package (6 defensive backs, less linebackers), it would make sense to audible to a running play because the smaller defenders would have a harder time tackling the running back and are trying to stop a passing play. It wouldn’t make sense to just run the play without reading the opposition’s strategy and adapting accordingly.

You want to use GTO strategies as a solid baseline but deviate according to the tendencies of the player(s) in the hand.

GTO Strategy May Not Be Optimal in All Situations

GTO strategy may not be optimal in every situation. The optimal strategy can vary depending on stack sizes, position, table dynamics, and your opponents’ tendencies. In certain situations, a deviation from the GTO strategy may be more profitable.

For example, if a player has a significant chip lead, they may choose to play more aggressively and deviate from the GTO strategy to put pressure on their opponents. You must be able to adapt your strategy not only to each player but also to the situation rather than blindly following the GTO strategy.

GTO Strategy Can Be Overly Complex

GTO strategy can be overly complex, especially for beginners or casual players. The strategy involves calculations, simulations, and game theory concepts that may be difficult to understand and apply. GTO strategy is not a one-size-fits-all approach; it requires players to have a deep understanding of poker theory and the ability to adjust their play according to the situation.

Trying to memorize hundreds of different situations and GTO charts isn’t a good idea for the average poker player. Instead a good place to start is by mastering basic poker strategy before attempting to learn and apply GTO concepts.


GTO strategy is a tool that can help poker players make optimal decisions in complex situations. However, it has a lot of limitations that players have to consider. GTO strategy is highly theoretical, can be exploited, may not be optimal in all situations, and can be overly complex.

Players should aim to understand the principles of GTO strategy while also adapting their play to the specific situation and opponents. By combining a baseline GTO strategy with a practical and adaptive approach, a player can see their win rate consistently increase over time.